Un picture of diversity in France: an extensive study sheds light on the family, educational and professional pathways of three generations of immigrants, breaking down some accepted ideas in a country where the third about the population under 60 has ethnic origins outside France.
The National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (Insee) and the National Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) published the first results of the second Trajectories and Origins survey (TeO2), conducted between July 2019 and November 2020 by a representative sample of 27,200 people aged 18 to 59, eleven years after the first edition.
21% of the French population is involved in immigration: 9% of the French population is an immigrant (5.8 million people) and 12% have an immigrant father and/or mother (7.5 million). In addition, 10% of those under 60 are grandchildren of immigrants (4.7 million), according to a preliminary study taken from the TeO2 survey.
Overall, a third of people under the age of 60 have an immigration link over three generations, the institutes point out.
Immigrants are especially important in the 20-45 age groups (15% of 40-44 year olds), as many come to France when they are already of working age. There are some under 18 (3%).
On the other hand, in the second generation, the descendants of immigrants are more represented by minors (20%), compared with 11% of 18-59 years and 7% of over 60 years.
– Many mixed unions over time –
The figures reflect the history of the influx of immigration in the 20th and 21st centuries: in the second generation of immigrants, two-thirds of the minors are from Africa. In contrast, 90% of the descendants of immigrants over the age of 60 are from Europe.
In addition to this overall picture, INSEE and INED present a color chart of the fortunes of people with an immigrant background by couple or school career.
Thus institutes have noted an increase in mixed generational unions: 63% of immigrants live in a couple with an immigrant, while 66% of second -generation immigrants live in a couple with an immigrant. there are people who have no immigrant background. This is the case with 78% of people from southern Europe, and 39% of those of North African origin.
As a result of this mix of unions, the intensity of the immigration link has decreased across generations: half of second -generation immigrants are from mixed couples. Nine-tenths of third-generation immigrants have only one or two immigrant grandparents.
Children of mixed couples (41%) and grandchildren of immigrants (44%) are frequent graduates of higher education such as “indigenous descendants” (43%), according to it. numbers relating to 30-59 years of age with a bac +2 diploma or more.
This was less the case with children of two immigrant parents (33%), because their parents had a lower level of education (5% versus 20% on average in the other three categories).
“Rapid mobilization of parents”
However, these children of two immigrant parents “cover the greatest distance”: more than 70% have earned a higher diploma than their parents, compared with 55 to 57% of those. children from families not of immigrant descent, from mixed couples or 3rd generation.
What comes into play with families from the Maghreb and southern Europe, where only 3% of parents have a higher education diploma, is “the strong mobilization of immigrant parents in favor of academic achievement of children ”, says the‘ study.
How do these degrees translate into the job market? Higher education graduates born to non-European parents have greater difficulty accessing intermediate or higher professions: 77% for children of indigenous peoples, against 63 % for whose parents are from the Maghreb, 67% from Asia and 71% from Africa.
Data from INSEE and INED also show that the number of people in France stating that they suffer discrimination has increased from 14% to 19% in eleven years.
The primary cause of discrimination was origin (nationality or skin color) for 8% of them, but sex became the primary source of discrimination against women (10%), before origin.
05/07/2022 23:05:38 – Paris (AFP) – © 2022 AFP