Teacher recruitment crisis: what if the solution is the contract?

Education and culture

May 24, 2022 • Manon Meistermann

Versailles Academy is seeking 1,300 contract teachers for the start of the school year in 2022. A recurring and urgent problem in recruiting teachers where Pap Ndiaye, recently appointed Minister of National Education, face from the next start of the school year where The 5 CAPES competitions (German, classics, physics-chemistry, mathematics, modern letters) have fewer qualified candidates than open positions and where the 5 academies (Versailles, Paris, Créteil, Mayotte, Guyana) suffer the same problem for recruiting school teachers.

Not even a new problem. In 2009, 72% of those registered for outdoor Capes took the competition, compared to 57% in 2021. For outdoor competition for school teachers (CPRE), this rate fell from 57% to 31 % from 2009 to 2021. over the past five -year term, François Hollande has struggled to fill the 60,000 teaching positions he has held. In 2020, the number of candidates registered for a position outside the Capes competition will be 5.6 to 1 compared to 8.4 to 1 in 2006.

The good leaders of the Marseille experiment

In his 2022 program, Emmanuel Macron expressed himself in favor of “ more freedom for establishments in their internal organization, for the recruitment of part of the teaching staff “. An idea that the President has been working on since March, 59 schools in Marseille launched the experiment: directors gained more powers to launch and finance projects (by validating citations). ), coordinating teams and creating their teaching team.

The Marseille experiment also offered a recruitment alternative and allowed schools to search for specific profiles through a commission composed of a school principal and two National Education inspectors. Candidates therefore pass interviews to ensure that they meet the needs: a major innovation in public education where working teachers are usually sent to rectorate schools and according to a point system. . extremely strict: 20 points per year in seniority, 45 points if it is in a priority establishment, 100 points per child, 150 points for a PACS or marriage (hence the proliferation of white PACS around teaching) , and so on

A system that does not promote mobility and does not satisfy anyone: in 2020-2021, in the first degree public, 77% of transfer requests were rejected, in the second degree public, 56%. Despite this, in Marseille, the inter-union CGT, FO, SNUipp-FSU and SUD, advised teachers to ignore the rector’s investigation of their interest in this new recruitment method. For these detractors, the risk is that no one wants to point to priority establishments and difficult neighborhoods. Today, these establishments rely on distribution made by rectorates and are based solely on coercion. Therefore, it is expected that the young teachers with the least score (but the least trained) will fill these positions.

The use of contractors: the only length

Faced with such logic, how can we be surprised by the recruitment crisis hitting National Education: if, at the beginning of the 2022-2023 school year, the ministry mentions a temporary event (related to the obligation to validate a master 2 for external competitions, and no longer a master 1), the fact is that, since 2000, the number of candidates taking the second degree Capes has increased from 40,000 to at 15,500. In 2022, 5 competitions (German, Letter Classics, Physics- Chemistry, Mathematics, Modern Letters) will have fewer qualified applicants than open positions. At the level of competition for school teachers, CRPE, 5 academies (Versailles, Paris, Créteil, Mayotte, Guyana) suffer from the same problem. Positions likely to be assigned to contractual workers whose share has increased in National Education: +26.3% since the start of the 2015-2016 school year in public education and +12.2% in private education, when the incumbent increased by 1.2% in public sector and decreased by -0.8% in the private sector.


Passing the status of contract worker has even become a rite of passage before joining the ranks of National Education because more than 20% of new entrants are in public secondary education and nearly 60% of those who have- admit to private secondary education has passed the internal competition for National Education staff. So most of them are already teachers and this aspect is growing, as the ministry report points out: ” The proportion of new holders working in school education as contractual workers in the two years before their entry into teacher training increased primarily in secondary education, from 7% in 2008 to 26 % in 2018 “.

Thus, under the guise of the uniqueness of the teaching body, the situation hides a real inequality of treatment. Take the number of teachers in a public high school, in general, there are:

  • The remaining 79% are certified teachers with 18 hours of law service per week, earning an average annual salary of approximately € 30,100. For this salary, a certified male teacher will conduct, on average, 19.3 hours of teaching per week.
  • 12% are engaged in statutory service of 15 hours per week, for an average annual salary of approximately € 42,000. For this fee, a fellow male teacher will do, on average, 16.3 hours of teaching per week.
  • 9% are non-permanent teachers (contract teachers) for an average annual salary of approximately € 19,000. For this fee, a male contract teacher will conduct, on average, 17.4 hours of teaching per week.

This means that at the same school level, on the same subject and with the same seniority, we will find 3 teachers relying on 3 different salary scales, for salaries that vary from simple to double and teaching hours varying by more than 100 hours a year and this, without their ability to manage a class, their pedagogy, their involvement in the life of the establishment or their skills considered : the only difference is the validation of a competition.

What will be the conclusion?

That the education system currently suffers from the management of a non-flexible stock of holders (very difficult for a public educator to replace the establishment, more academic and impossible for a director to separate a teacher is not possible. suitable for the establishment). The system therefore makes a transition with a greater way of hiring contractual workers whose contracts are similar to a fixed-term contract and for which there is no forced service: thus, if the owner the mode Whether he wants to work full-time (6 pm) or part-time (9 am), the contract worker can be hired at several establishments to give 3, 8, 18 or 20 lessons. So there are only two options: lifelong employment or short -term employment, while what needs to be improved is a permanent public sector contract.

It is already in place elsewhere. In Sweden, teachers are recruited by school principals, are well integrated into the public service but under a private law contract equivalent to a permanent contract, and negotiate their salary according to market and financial needs. school. In Germany, an increasing number of teachers work equally in municipalities and schools, with no civil servant status. In England, most teachers are recruited, on permanent contracts, to the boards of directors of the schools to which they apply, but they have a status comparable to community agents and, legally. way, working for one of 152 local education authorities.

Since you are here …

Dedicated to public policy research, the iFRAP Foundation is funded by private tax -deductible philanthropies. This private funding makes it free to speak, free to pursue lines of research and free to propose reforms.

Advance France: use your IFI, your IR or your IS to support the iFRAP Foundation!

I am making a donation to support the IFRAP Foundation

Leave a Comment