the Georgiathe Moldova and theUkraine the three republics born in 1990-1991 from the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The emergence of Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine is part of the dynamics of the claims of sovereignty of the Soviet republics driven by Russia. He proclaimed him sovereignty in June 1990a method followed by all other republics.
- the December 8, 1991 on MinskRussia, Belarus and Ukraine – the three Slavic republics – have initialscalled the Belovej agreement confirmed their exit from the USSR. This document is the first legal act of dissolution in the federal state. They immediately announced the making of a Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) open to all republics.
- the December 26, 1991the Council of Republics, the high house of the Supreme Soviet of the Union, voted disintegration of the USSR. Thus the fifteen republics became officially independent.
The challenge of the Russian population in Moldova and Ukraine
Unlike nation-state France, Russia distinguishes citizenship from nationality. A named individual “Russian by citizenship“may be Ukrainian or Tatar nationality. The other may be the same”Russian by citizenship and nationality“.
Within the USSR, people of Russian nationality make up almost half the population. The disintegration of the USSR imposed, from Russia’s point of view, the need to manage territories sometimes primarily inhabited by Russians, which had since been located outside the borders of the Russian Federation.
Ukraine is home to a strong minority in Russia. Moldova is inhabited by two-thirds of Moldovans (very close to Romanians) but also to Ukrainian, Russian and Gagauz (Turkish-speaking) minorities.
The country is bordered by Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkey. An estimated 4.7 million inhabitants live in an area of 69,700 km2.
Along with the Baltic States, Georgia was one of the former Soviet republics that did not join the CIS. on days after regaining its independence, in 1991, it entered a decade of economic, political and social crisis..
In 2003, the “pink revolution“ overthrew President Shevardnadze, heir to the Soviet era. When President Saakashvili came to power in 2004 and in his two terms in office, Georgia was driven by a definite wave of democratization and modernization. Georgia immediately showed a new interest in the West and especially in the Euro-Atlantic merger.
The sovereignty of Republic of Moldova proclaimed in June 1990. A state the size of Belgium and with a population of nearly three million, the country, within its current borders, has existed since 1991, the year of independence. It is located between Ukraine and Romania. When the USSR collapsed, the country had to deal with blinding in part of its territory, the Transnistria is located on the left bank of the Dniester.
Since “Places called Dniester in the Republic of Moldavia“ located athinterland from the Ukrainian port of Odessa -less than 100 kilometers away-developing structures in a quasi-state, with a population (half a million people), territory (about 4,000 square kilometers) and administration, a presidency, a Parliament, a currency… It is not recognized by any State.
With more than 40 million inhabitants and 603,548 km2, angUkraine is there second most popular republic in the USSR after Russia. Its Parliament adopted the , the declaration of political sovereignty of Ukraine. This was the first step towards the independence of the republic. It was proclaimed by and confirmed by the independence referendum organized by